CIPANK-250/500 Tablet

CIPANK-250/500

PRESENTATION:
Ciprofloxacin IP 250 mg
Ciprofloxacin IP 500 mg

PACKING AVAILABLE:
(20X10) (BLISTER)
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic in a group of drugs called fluoroquinolones. Ciprofloxacin fights against bacteria in the body. Ciprofloxacin is used to treat different types of bacterial infections.

Indications and Usage



Ciprofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in various conditions:

Adult Patients:-
Urinary Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptibleStaphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, or Enterococcus faecalis.
⇒Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis in females caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
⇒Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis.
⇒Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Also, Moraxella catarrhalis for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.
⇒Acute Sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, > penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.
⇒Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Streptococcus pyogenes.
⇒Bone and Joint Infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
⇒Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections(used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, orBacteroides fragilis.
⇒Infectious Diarrhoea caused by Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic strains), Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella boydii †, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri or Shigella sonnei† when antibacterial therapy is indicated.
⇒Uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Adult and Pediatric Patients:-
⇒Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure):To reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans served as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provided the initial basis for approval of this indication.
If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Therapy with ciprofloxacin may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available appropriate therapy should be continued. As with other drugs, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin and other antibacterial drugs, ciprofloxacin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Drug Interactions



When ciprofloxacin tablet is given concomitantly with food, there is a delay in the absorption of the drug, resulting in peak concentrations that occur closer to 2 hours after dosing rather than 1 hour. The overall absorption of ciprofloxacin tablet, however, is not substantially affected.
Concurrent administration of antacids containing magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide may reduce the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by as much as 90%.
Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated. In a pharmacokinetic study, systemic exposure of tizanidine (4 mg single dose) was significantly increased (Cmax 7-fold, AUC 10-fold) when the drug was given concomitantly with ciprofloxacin (500 mg bid for 3 days). The hypotensive and sedative effects of tizanidine were also potentiated Concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin with theophylline decreases the clearance of theophylline resulting in elevated serum theophylline levels and increased risk of a patient developing CNS or other adverse reactions. Ciprofloxacin also decreases caffeine clearance and inhibits the formation of paraxanthine after caffeine administration.
Histamine H2-receptor antagonists appear to have no significant effect on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.Altered serum levels of phenytoin (increased and decreased) have been Metoclopramide significantly accelerates the absorption of oral ciprofloxacin resulting in shorter time to reach maximum plasma concentrations. No significant effect was observed on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

Pediatrics:- Ciprofloxacin should be used in pediatric patients (less than 18 years of age) only for infections listed in the indications section. An increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues, has been It should be used with caution in pregnant and in nursing mothers.

Pharmacology



Pharmacodynamics



Ciprofloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. The mechanism of action of fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, is different from that of penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and tetracyclines; therefore, microorganisms resistant to these classes of drugs may be susceptible to ciprofloxacin and other quinolones. There is no known cross-resistance between ciprofloxacin and other classes of antimicrobials. In vitro resistance to ciprofloxacin develops slowly by multiple step mutations. Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections.

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms:- Enterococcus faecalis (Many strains are only moderately susceptible.)Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only) Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains only)Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes.

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms:- Campylobacter jejuni Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter cloacae Providencia stuartii, Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae Salmonella typhi, Haemophilus parainfluenzae Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae Shigella boydii, Moraxella catarrhalis Shigella dysenteriae, Morganella morganii Shigella flexneri, Neisseria gonorrhoeae Shigella sonnei.

Pharmacokinetics



Absorption:- Ciprofloxacin given as an oral tablet is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 70% with no substantial loss by first pass metabolism. Maximum serum concentrations are attained 1 to 2 hours after oral dosing.The serum elimination half-life in subjects with normal renal function is approximately 4 hours. Serum concentrations increase proportionately with doses up to 1000 mg.
Distribution:- The binding of ciprofloxacin to serum proteins is 20 to 40% which is not likely to be high enough to cause significant protein binding interactions with other drugs. After oral administration, ciprofloxacin is widely distributed throughout the body. Tissue concentrations often exceed serum concentrations in both men and women, particularly in genital tissue including the prostate. Ciprofloxacin is present in active form in the saliva, nasal and bronchial secretions, mucosa of the sinuses, sputum, skin blister fluid, lymph, peritoneal fluid, bile, and prostatic secretions. Ciprofloxacin has also been detected in lung, skin, fat, muscle, cartilage, and bone. The drug diffuses into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF<); however, CSF concentrations are generally less than 10% of peak serum concentrations. Low levels of the drug have been detected in the aqueous and vitreous humors of the eye.
Metabolism:- Four metabolites have been identified in human urine which together account for approximately 15% of an oral dose. The metabolites have antimicrobial activity, but are less active than unchanged ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) mediated metabolism. Co administration of ciprofloxacin with other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 results in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs and could lead to clinically significant adverse events of the co administered drug.
Excretion:- The serum elimination half-life in subjects with normal renal function is approximately 4 hours. Approximately 40 to 50% of an orally administered dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug. The urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin is virtually complete within 24 hours after dosing. The renal clearance of ciprofloxacin, which is approximately 300 mL/minute, exceeds the normal glomerular filtration rate of 120 mL/minute. Thus, active tubular secretion would seem to play a significant role in its elimination. Although bile concentrations of ciprofloxacin are several fold higher than serum concentrations after oral dosing, only a small amount of the dose administered is recovered from the bile as unchanged drug. An additional 1 to 2% of the dose is recovered from the bile in the form of metabolites. Approximately 20 to 35% of an oral dose is recovered from the feces within 5 days after dosing. This may arise from either biliary clearance or transintestinal elimination.
Special Populations:- Pharmacokinetic studies of the oral (single dose) and intravenous (single and multiple dose) forms of ciprofloxacin indicate that plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin are higher in elderly subjects (> 65 years) as compared to young adults. Although the Cmax is increased 16-40%, the increase in mean AUC is approximately 30%, and can be at least partially attributed to decreased renal clearance in the elderly. Elimination half-life is only slightly (~20%) prolonged in the elderly. These differences are not considered clinically significant. In patients with reduced renal function, the half-life of ciprofloxacin is slightly prolonged. Dosage adjustments may be required. Coadministration of probenecid with ciprofloxacin results in about a 50% reduction in the ciprofloxacin renal clearance and a 50% increase in its concentration in the systemic circulation.

Adverse Effects



The most frequently reported drug related events, from clinical trials of all formulations, all dosages, all drug-therapy durations, and for all indications of ciprofloxacin therapy were nausea (2.5%), diarrhea (1.6%), liver function tests abnormal (1.3%), vomiting (1%), and rash (1%). ), methemoglobinemia, moniliasis (oral, gastrointestinal, vaginal), myalgia, myasthenia, myasthenia gravis (possible).

Over Dosage



In the event of acute overdosage, reversible renal toxicity has been reported in some cases. The stomach should be emptied by inducing vomiting or by gastric lavage. The patient should be carefully observed and given supportive treatment, including monitoring of renal function and administration of magnesium, aluminum, or calcium containing antacids which can reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Adequate hydration must be maintained. Only a small amount of ciprofloxacin (< 10%) is removed from the body after hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Contraindication



Ciprofloxacin is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antimicrobial agents, or any of the product components. Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated.

Warning and Precaution



Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, are associated With an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in All ages. This risk is further increased in older patients Usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking Corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or Lung transplants.

Conclusion



From the above discussion we can conclude that terbinafine can control symptoms of various fungal diseases, and aids in healthy life.